Higher Secondary is the most crucial step of school writing because, at this position-specific discipline-based, content-oriented programs are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of global education and opt for Chemistry to pursue their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology, and other applied areas. Therefore, there is a need to give learners sufficient conceptual knowledge of Chemistry, which will make them qualified to meet the challenges of academic and professional education after the senior secondary stage.
The new and updated curriculum is based on a disciplinary approach with rigor and depth taking interest that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the global level. The knowledge linked to the subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes through the past decade. Many new areas like synthetic substances, bio-molecules, natural resources, modern chemistry are happening in a big way and deserve to be an indispensable part of the Chemistry Class 11 CBSE syllabus at the senior secondary stage. At the international level, new formulations and classification of elements and compounds, symbols, and units of physical measures floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC and CGPM are of enormous importance and need to be incorporated in the renewed syllabus. The revised syllabus needs care of all these aspects. Greater emphasis has been laid on the use of new vocabulary, symbols, and formulations, the teaching of fundamental concepts, application of ideas in chemistry to industry/ technology, logical sequencing of members, removal of antiquated content and repetition, etc.
The curriculum of Chemistry at the Senior Secondary Stage aims to
- promote understanding of essential facts and concepts in chemistry while maintaining the excitement of chemistry.
- make students able of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine, engineering, technology) at the tertiary level.
- expose the students to various developing new areas of chemistry and apprise them of their importance in future studies and their application in different spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
- equip students to face several challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, weather, industries, and agriculture.
- develop problem-solving skills in students.
- expose the students to different methods used in industries and their technological requests.
- apprise students with the interface of chemistry with other methods of science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering etc.
- acquaint students with various aspects of chemistry used in daily life.
- develop an investment in students to study chemistry as a discipline.
- integrate life experiences and values in the context of chemistry
|Title||No. of Periods||Marks|
|Unit I||Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry||O8||08|
|Unit II||Structure of Atom||10|
|Unit III||Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties||06||04|
|Unit IV||Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure||14||20|
|Unit V||States of Matter: Gases, Liquids and solids||18|
|Unit VI||Chemical Thermodynamics||16|
|Unit VIII||Redox Reactions||06||20|
|Unit X||s -Block Elements||10|
|Unit XI||p -Block Elements||18|
|Unit XII||Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques||14||18|
|Unit XIV||Environmental Chemistry||06|
Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and range of chemistry.
Nature of matter, Dalton’s atomic theory: the concept of elements, laws of chemical combination, atoms, and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses, mole theory and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular method, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, and estimates based on stoichiometry.
Unit II: Structure of Atom
Bohr’s model and its limitations, the concept of shells and subshells, dual world of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, p and d orbitals, shapes of s, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic form of atoms, stability of half-filled and filled orbitals.
Unit III- Classifi of Elements & Periodicity in Properties
Modern periodic law and the present form of the periodic table, periodic trends in parts of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with a minute number greater than 100
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, the polar character of covalent bond, covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory,
involving s, p, and d orbitals, and shapes of some single molecules, molecular orbital
theory of homonuclear diatomic particles(qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit V: States of Matter: Gases, Liquids & Solids
Three phases of matter, intermolecular cooperations, melting and boiling points, types of bonding, the role of gas laws in explaining the concept of the molecule, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behavior, Boyle’s law, empirical derivation of gas equation, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, Avogadro’s number, critical temperature, kinetic energy, and molecular speeds (elementary idea)
Liquid State: vapor pressure, viscosity, and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical sources)
Solid-state: Classification of solids based on various binding forces: molecular, covalent, ionic, and hard solids, amorphous & crystalline bodies. Unit number in two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing efficiency, voids, packing in solids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics
Concepts of Systems and types of systems, surroundings, heat, work, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. The first law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, measurement of AU and AH, heat capacity and specific heat, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, atomization, sublimation, formation, ionization, combustion, phase transition, solution, and dilution. Second law of
Thermodynamics (brief introduction). Introduction of entropy as a state party, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, models for equilibrium.
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